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War Memory
Volume: 34, Issue: 2 (2006)
So Much Depends On A Red Bus, Or, Innocent Victims Of The Liberating Gun
The essay looks at contemporary descriptions of aerial warfare as a metaphor for the ‘top-down’ and ‘from-the-bottom-up’ perceptions and representations of history and argues that the task of oral history is to reconnect the two views and explore the ground in between. It exemplifies this approach by an exploration of the memory of bombardments in Italy (mainly Rome and Terni) and of its ambiguities: for instance, many narrators have a hard time recognizing that their homes and neighbourhoods were destroyed by those who they have learned to designate as ‘liberators’, rather than by their Nazi and Fascist oppressors. The article also compares this memory with journalistic, historical and literary discussions of aerial warfare, including the wars in Kosovo and Iraq as well as the bombing of Dresden.
Author(s): Alessandro Portelli
Keywords: aerial bombardment, World War Two, Italy, memory

Memories of the War and the War of Memories in Post-communist Bulgaria
The paper focuses on the memories of a major event during World War Two, the take over of power in Bulgaria by a communist-dominated coalition on 9 September 1944. This event has been a significant ‘place of memory’ but one whose significance has changed dramatically in recent years. Personal memories are examined according to their inclusion or exclusion from what could be considered ‘socially legitimate currencies of memory’. The attention is drawn to cases of conditioning personal memories by ‘official’ public memory (commemorations, textbooks, public scholarly debates) and of their seeking to contest it. Thus the paper sets out to explore the relation of personal memories to dominant discourses in a period when the latter have themselves been revised.
Author(s): Daniela Koleva
Keywords: memory, public-private, dominant-oppositional, Bulgaria

The Politics Of ‘Selective’ Memory: Re-Visioning Canadian Women’s Wartime Work In The Public Record
We study the tensions between the ‘official’ memory of women’s wartime work and the diverse memories of women who worked at a Canadian aircraft-manufacturing warplant during World War Two. We examine the inscription in the public record of a limited range of iconic representations to encapsulate and memorialise women’s wartime contributions. Our oral histories complicate the public record by demonstrating the complex ways in which the women construct their own memories of wartime work in relation to family dynamics and earning power, regionalism and geographic relocation, class, ethnicity and politics. We argue for the inclusion of personal memory to transform the public record of women’s wartime work beyond the narrow frame of a moral discourse on patriotism.
Author(s): Pamela Wakewich and Helen Smith
Keywords: women’s wartime work; Canadian public record; oral history and personal narrative; memorialisation; skilled work and self-identity; patriotism; wartime propaganda

‘These Feelings That Fill My Heart’: Japanese Canadian Women’s Memories Of Internment
Shortly after Japan bombed Pearl Harbor, the Canadian Government uprooted roughly 22,000 persons ‘of the Japanese race’, seventy-five percent of whom were Naturalised or Canadian-born citizens. Women and children, and some men were relocated to ghost towns. Men who displayed the slightest form of resistance were incarcerated as prisoners of war. Families were divided, property confiscated, and after being interned for up to four years, Japanese Canadians were forced to either move to Japan, or disperse throughout Canada. In this article, I explore the ways in which Nisei (second-generation Japanese Canadian) women, most of whom were teens or young adults at the time of war, remember this event roughly sixty years later, and in the context of their lives. Informed by the oral testimonies of sixty Nisei women, as well as my own memories of my family’s internment, I focus on the narratives of three women. In presenting these narratives, I consider the relationship between personal reminiscence and public history, the role of biography, and the significance of emotionality in gathering and interpreting life stories. I argue that the women’s personal memories extend our understanding of the internment as an isolated event in history to one that is part of enduring historical processes shaped by unequal relations of ‘race’, gender and class.
Author(s): Pamela Sugiman
Keywords: World War Two, memory, emotionality, internment, racism, women’s history

Humour In Oral History Interviews
This article seeks to open a discussion of humour in the oral history interview, its effects on the interview relationship, its manifestations in the narratives themselves, its significance for understanding personal identity in and through history, and its relation to memory. It explores the potential positive and negative influences of humour on remembering and narrating in the oral history interview: how a humorous perspective on the past and accommodation for the sake of humour can affect narration; how humour contributes to the construction of personal identity; and the role of reassessment of remembered events as a natural narrative source of the dual perspective characteristic of humour.
Author(s): Neal R. Norrick
Keywords: humour, identity, interviewing, narrative

Public History
London’s Voices: Exhibiting Oral History
This article reflects on the aims and outcomes of London’s Voices, an ambitious oral history programme at the Museum of London that between 2001 and 2004 experimented with different techniques for the public display of oral history. It focuses on three particular projects within the programme: a dance piece performed in a range of informal external venues; a website presenting full transcripts alongside extracts and incorporating an interactive element; and an exhibition based almost entirely on oral history, without objects or curatorial text. In each case the aims and approaches of the project and audience responses are evaluated and reflected on.
Author(s): Annette Day
Keywords: Museum, performance, world wide web, new technology, exhibition, audience, evaluation

Ivan’s War: The Red Army 1939-1945
Author(s): Catherine Merridale

Witnesses of War: Children’s Lives Under the Nazis
Author(s): Nicholas Stargardt

Author(s): Esther Wilson, John Fay, Tony Green and Lizzie Nunnery, Producer, Pauline Harris

My Home
Author(s): London Bubble Theatre Company, Karen Tomlin, Director

North Africans in Contemporary France: Becoming Visible
Author(s): Richard L. Derderian

From Goldfish to Ocean: Personal Accounts of Mental Illness and Beyond
Author(s): Zoë McIntosh (ed)

Living Stories: Experiences of People Living with Haemophilia and HIV, The Haemophilia and HIV Life History Project
Author(s): The Haemophilia and HIV Life History Project, University of Brighton

Railwaywomen: Exploitation, Betrayal and Triumph in the Workplace
Author(s): Helena Wojtczak

Researching Life Stories: Method, Theory and Analysis in a Biographical Age
Author(s): Dan Goodley, Rebecca Lawthom, Peter Clough and Michele Moore

Transcription Techniques for the Spoken Word
Author(s): Willow Roberts Powers

Moor Memories: Rabbits, Whortleberries and Railways; Lovely Days; Blacksticks and Blizzards
Author(s): Dartmoor National Park Authority