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Landscapes of Memory
Volume: 28, Issue: 1 (2000)
Heartbreak Hill: Environment, Unemployment and 'Back to the Land' in Inter-War Cleveland
In the 1930s unemployed ironstone miners in Yorkshire's Cleveland district _ participated in a land colonization scheme popularly called 'Heartbreak Hill'. Interweaving motives - paternalist, political and cultural - for its promotion are explored. The environmentalist and racialist ideas of Rolf Gardiner are identified as crucial: these led to the scheme being modelled on German youth movement workcamps. Folk dance and operatic productions at Heart- break Hill are explored; also participants' perceptions, then and since, of its relationship to German fascism. This research uncovered various layers of meaning and interpretation but itself also contributed to the scheme being reworked as 'heritage'.
Author(s): Malcolm Chase
Keywords: Fascism, Germany, heritage, land, unemployment, workcamps, Yorkshire, youth movements

The Sacred Rock and the Profane Settlement: Place, Memory and Identity under the Acropolis
This article focuses on conflicting representations and uses of place in an area under the Acropolis of Athens. The community of Anafiotika, a settlement of roughly fifty houses built by migrant workers from the Cyclades in the 1860s, lies on the northeast slope of the rock of the Acropolis. Since their settling there, they have been considered illegal squatters and most of their homes have been expropriated by the State. The article explores the encounter between the official dominant discourse of scholars and agents involved in the management of national monumental space and the 'counterdiscourse' of the residents of the threatened settlement The Anafiot discourse in the form of narratives that uphold and legitimate their presence on the specific site, supports their sense of being 'in-place' and presents a critique of both the hegemonic construction of place and history that relegates them to the category of 'matter out of place9 and of the way of life of the surrounding 'host society'.
Author(s): Roxane Caftanzoglou
Keywords: Greece/Hellas; archaeology; place and memory

Liquidators, Chornobylets and Masonic Ecologists: Ukrainian Environmental Identities
Oral histories can be important tools in understanding and addressing the sociocultural factors of environmental problems. This paper discusses the challenges confronting 'environmentalists' because of the contested and fragmented Ukrainian identities fostered by the Chornobyl nuclear accident. Oral history interviews reveal that memories of Chornobyl have clouded attitudes about Ukraine and its environment and that the practical work of protecting natural resources is severely constrained by the social consequences of the disaster. Whether Ukrainians can overcome the bitter legacy of Chornobyl remains to be seen, but the individual efforts documented here emphasise the importance of addressing the social and cultural context of any existing or proposed environmental restoration efforts.
Author(s): Janice Brummond
Keywords: Chorobyl, Ukraine, environmentalism, social identities

Clean and Green but Messy: The Contested Landscape of New Zealand's Organic Farms
New Zealand's 'Clean and Green' image of nature and landscape has been naturalised into the collective psyche of New Zealanders, and is continually being promoted to tourists and visitors. There is, however, a tension in this vision in the farmed landscape. While 'Clean' refers to un-polluted, pure, pristine landscape, it also has connotations of tidiness. The increasing trend towards organic farming brings an apparent contradiction to this image, as the practices of organic farming do not conform to the general tidy appearance of cultivated landscapes in New Zealand. This paper argues that land- scape tastes of New Zealand farmers are underpinned by ideologies, world views and social values and suggests a framework that could provide a context for interpreting some of the meanings embodied in the New Zealand farming landscape.
Author(s): Shelley Egoz
Keywords: New Zealand; organic farming; cultivated landscape

Memories out of Place: Dissonance and Silence in Historical Accounts of Working Class Argentines
This paper examines analytic and theoretical issues that arose during ethno- graphic fieldwork in a working class community outside Buenos Aires. It looks at the memories, interpretations and implications of recent Argentine history for residents of this particular community. The article examines an incident in which local people were shaken when their account of the neighbourhood's history was poorly received by an audience of outsiders. This tense encounter calls attention to the difficulties people face when trying to communicate stories and memories that are out of place and out of step. The social nature of historical narratives and their rootedness in places are underlined.
Author(s): Lindsay DuBois
Keywords: Argentina, dictatorship, narratives, social memory

Public History
A Sense of Identity and a Sense of Place: Oral History and Preserving the Past in the Mining Community of Broken Hill
Broken Hill is a mining community of 23,000 people in the arid Far West of New South Wales, Australia. The city has been dominated by the mining industry since 1883 and has contributed greatly to the industrial growth and wealth of Australia. With closure of the last operational mine predicted by 2006, the mining company that remains has offered to lease the non- working surface infrastructure to the community for development as an educational and tourism centre. The total site, including the residential areas of the city, present as a unique living museum of industrial heritage and cultural significance for Australia. This paper outlines the historical development of Broken Hill and discusses the use of oral history in the design of key elements of the Line of Lode Project.
Author(s): Christine Landorf
Keywords: Broken Hill/ mining heritage/ oral history and architectural design

Cyber-Teaching in the Oral History Classroom
This essay details how digital communication tools and strategies facilitated teaching oral history differently, enabling students to build a collaborative oral history project from beginning to end in the course of one semester. Students designed, conducted, analysed, interpreted, archived and disseminated the results of their work in print, web-based, and public formats. The use of new media changed the pedagogy of the classroom, turning it into a highly interactive and collaborative workshop environment. Students experienced working together as a team, using oral history to engage in real research, advocating for change on their own college campus. The essay suggests that new media technologies provide more than ease of communication. They lead to better teaching and learning.
Author(s): Rina Benmayor
Keywords: New media/ pedagogy; collaboration/ multiple annotation

A Million before the Millennium: Oral History and the Lottery
Author(s): Stuart Davies

Trauma and Life Stories: International Perspectives
Author(s): Kim Lacy Rogers, Selma Leydesdorff, Graham Dawson

Out of the Ordinary: Inventive Ways of Bringing Communities, Their Stories and Audiences to Light
Author(s): Annie Bolitho, Mary Hutchinson

Researching Life Stories and Family Histories
Author(s): Robert L. Miller

The Voice of the People. A Series of Anthologies of Traditional Music
Author(s): Reg Hall

Nine Lives: Ethnic Conflict in the Polish-Ukrainian Borderlands
Author(s): Waldemar Lotnik, Julian Preece

Playing with Time: Mothers and the Meaning of Literacy
Author(s): Jane Mace

The Crafts in Britain in the Twentieth Century
Author(s): Tanya Harrod

Rogue Reels: Oppositional Film in Britain, 1945-90
Author(s): Margaret Dickinson

Red Voices: United from the Terraces
Author(s): Stephen F. Kelly